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Heparin Sodium is the sodium salt of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and is present as a mixture of heterogeneous molecules varying in molecular weights that work against different factors of the blood clotting spectrum. It is obtained from porcine intestinal mucosa. All sourcing of heparin material is specified and is in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. The manufacturing process is validated to demonstrate inactivation of relevant infectious and adventitious agents (e.g., viruses, TSE agents). Heparin Sodium is composed of polymers of alternating derivatives of α-D-glucosamido (N-sulfated, O-sulfated, or N-acetylated) and O-sulfated uronic acid (α-L-iduronic acid or β-D-glucuronic acid). The component activities of the mixture are in ratios corresponding to the Heparin Sodium Reference Standard from Pharmacopeia. These components have the property of prolonging the clotting time of blood. This occurs mainly through the formation of a complexity of each component with the plasma proteins antithrombin and heparin cofactor II to potentiate the inactivation of thrombin (factor IIa). Other coagulation proteases in the clotting sequence, such as activated factor X (factor Xa), are also inhibited.
At present, heparin and its derivatives have extensive clinical applications.